# Multicollinearity Test in Multiple Linear Regression Analysis

In multiple linear regression analysis, there is an assumption that the model constructed is not affected by multicollinearity issues, where two or more independent variables are strongly correlated. Multicollinearity can lead to errors in parameter estimation and reduce the reliability of the model.

Therefore, researchers need to conduct multicollinearity tests to assess the adequacy of multiple linear regression models. In this article, Kanda Data will explain the concept of multicollinearity and the testing techniques that can be used to ensure that multiple linear regression analysis produces the Best Linear Unbiased Estimator (BLUE).

## Testing the Assumption of Multicollinearity in Multiple Linear Regression Analysis

One of the crucial assumptions in multiple linear regression analysis is that independent variables are not strongly correlated. When two or more independent variables exhibit high correlation, the regression equation created by the researcher is said to experience multicollinearity issues.

Multicollinearity can lead to problems in interpreting the results of linear regression, such as difficulty in distinguishing the effects of each independent variable on the dependent variable. To test this assumption, several techniques can be used, including calculating tolerance values and VIF (Variance Inflation Factor), as well as examining the correlation matrix between independent variables.

By conducting thorough tests of multicollinearity assumptions, multiple linear regression analysis can approach obtaining the Best Linear Unbiased Estimator. However, researchers also need to conduct other assumption tests required in multiple linear regression analysis using the ordinary least squares method.

## Impact of Multicollinearity on Regression Equation

Multicollinearity can have significant impacts on the regression equation and the interpretation of its results. One of the main impacts is a decrease in the reliability of parameter estimation. When independent variables are strongly correlated, it becomes difficult to distinguish the contribution of each variable to the dependent variable, leading to unstable and less accurate parameter estimations.

Moreover, multicollinearity can also reduce the effectiveness of the model in making predictions. Models affected by multicollinearity may have high error rates and may not be reliable in generating accurate predictions.

## Multicollinearity Test Using VIF

Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) analysis is one of the commonly used methods to test multicollinearity in multiple linear regression analysis. VIF measures how much the variance of parameter estimates increases due to multicollinearity among independent variables.

Specifically, VIF calculates how much variance of an independent variable is caused by its correlation with other independent variables in the model. A VIF value above 10 is often considered an indicator of significant multicollinearity, although some studies suggest lower thresholds.

If the VIF value of a variable exceeds the established threshold, it indicates that the variable is heavily influenced by multicollinearity, and the associated parameter estimations may be unstable.

## Example Case of Multicollinearity Test Results and Interpretation

Let’s say we have a multiple linear regression model testing the influence of independent variables (X1, X2, and X3) on the dependent variable (Y). After conducting a multicollinearity test using Variance Inflation Factor (VIF), we obtained results of 3.2, 2.8, and 4.5.

The threshold considered as an indicator of multicollinearity is 10. Therefore, from these results, we can conclude that there is no significant multicollinearity issue in this model because all VIF values are below the established threshold.

The interpretation of the results is that the three independent variables (X1, X2, and X3) are not strongly correlated with each other, thus the parameter estimates for each variable can be considered stable and reliable. Well, this concludes the article for this occasion, hopefully it is useful and provides new knowledge for those in need, thank you.